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Gionet, S., Lord, M., & Plourde, V. (2024). The Diagnosis of ADHD in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy: A Scoping Review. Child Neuropsychology. 

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often diagnosed in children and adolescents with epilepsy, but clear clinical guidelines on how to make this diagnosis are still lacking. Without these guidelines, there is no consensus between specialists on how to proceed when assessing children with epilepsy for ADHD, which can negatively impact the quality of care being offered to this population. As a first step toward gaining more specific clinical guidelines, this scoping review was aimed at documenting the tools and procedures used to diagnose ADHD in children and adolescents with epilepsy over time and at determining whether the diagnoses were made in accordance with clinical guidelines and recommendations. The literature search was conducted using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if conducted with children and adolescents aged between 4 and 18 years with epilepsy being evaluated for ADHD. Studies were clustered according to their publication date and the reported diagnostic procedures were identified. Forty-nine out of 3854 records were included. Results highlight discrepancies between how ADHD was diagnosed in reviewed studies and clinical guidelines or recommendations. Indeed, most studies did not use a multi-method and multi-informant approach when diagnosing ADHD in children with epilepsy, with no improvement over time. Future studies aimed at diagnosing ADHD in children and adolescents should ensure that they are following clinical guidelines and recommendations, in addition to adapting their diagnostic procedures to the presence of any neurological comorbidities, such as epilepsy.

Gionet, S., Arseneau, J., & Plourde, V. (2023). Psychopathology and mind wandering in young university students. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 163. 350-356.

Mind wandering has often been studied in relation to psychopathology. However, debates remain as to whether sluggish cognitive tempo, recently termed cognitive disengagement syndrome (CDS), and ADHD symptoms could be unique predictors of mind wandering. Therefore, this study was aimed at documenting the associations between CDS, ADHD symptoms and mind wandering while controlling for age, sex, internalized symptoms, and sleep. A sample consisting of university students (N = 60; aged between 17 and 32 years; 65% female) completed measures of CDS, ADHD symptoms, internalized functioning and insomnia. Mind wandering was also assessed using the 5-item Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and thought sampling during a reading task. Multiple regression analyses show that while younger age and inattention were significant predictors of greater levels of self-reported mind wandering on the MWQ, sex, CDS, hyperactivity/impulsivity, internalized symptoms, and sleep were not. In addition, no variables were able to significantly predict spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering as assessed by thought sampling. These findings raise important questions regarding the equivalence between measures of state-level and trait-level mind wandering. The associations between ADHD, CDS and mind wandering in young adults are still unclear, but our findings highlight critical methodological considerations for future studies that might further our understanding of the relationship between task-unrelated thought and psychopathology.

Gionet, S., Guitard, D., & Saint-Aubin, J., (2022). The Production Effect Interacts with Serial Positions: Evidence from a Between-Subject Manipulation. Experimental Psychology, 69(1), 12-22.

Reading some words aloud during presentation, that is, producing them, and reading other words silently generate a large memory advantage for words that are produced. This robust within-list production effect is in contrast with the between-lists condition in which all words are read aloud or silently. In a between-lists condition, produced items are better recognized, but not better recalled. The lack of a between-lists production effect with recall tasks has often been presented as one of its defining characteristics and as a benchmark for evaluating models. Recently, Cyr et al. (2021) showed that this occurs because item production interacts with serial positions: Produced items are less well recalled on the first serial positions than silently read items, while the reverse pattern is observed for the recency portion of the curve. However, this pattern was observed with a repeated-measures design, and it may be a by-product of compensatory processes under the control of participants. Here, using a between-participants design, we observed the predicted interaction between production and serial positions. The results further support the Revised Feature Model (RFM) suggesting that produced items are encoded with more modality-dependent distinctive features, therefore benefiting recall. However, the production of the additional distinctive features would disrupt rehearsal.